How To Pick The Right Dentist For You

When you relocate to a new area, one of the most important things on your to-do list should be finding the right dentist for you. With so many dental practices to choose from, it can be difficult to narrow down which office will ultimately best meet your needs. As your local dentist in Chester Springs, PA, Dental Distinction is here to answer any and all questions you might have related to dentistry. Here are three things you should look for when choosing a dentist: 

The Dentist’s Credentials 

Understanding the dentist’s professional and educational background will give you a good idea on whether or not they will be able to meet your needs. You need to know that you can trust the person who will be keeping an eye on your dental health. Most dental practices will display their dentist’s credentials on their website, but don’t be afraid to ask about them if you don’t see them. At Dental Distinction, we are home to Dr. Jay Petkevis. Dr. Petkevis is one of the leading dentists in the greater Philadelphia area for advanced restorative and cosmetic dentistry procedures. He attended Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, in Boston, Massachusetts. He has also participated in post-graduate training via The Dawson Academy in St. Petersburg, Florida. In our office, he is known for providing compassionate and comprehensive dental services to patients of all ages. 

Wide Range of Dental Services

It is recommended that you visit your dentist once every six months. This means that you are not looking for a dentist that can meet your needs right now, but for many years to come. Your dentist should offer a wide range of dental services to ensure that they can provide you with your necessary care at any stage within your dental health journey. For example, our Chester Springs dentist office provides general, cosmetic, and restorative dentistry services. Whether you are in need of routine dental care or would like to pursue elective procedures to fix major or minor issues with your smile, we are here for you. Dr. Petkevis’s extensive professional background in dentistry allows him to give our patients high-quality dental care. From dentures and partials to oral health and wellness visits, there is rarely a dental concern that we cannot help you resolve. 


A good dental practice will have a solid reputation within its community. You should always check out a practice’s testimonials and online reviews. This will give you a good idea of what to expect when visiting that practice based on other patient’s experiences. Dr. Pekevis is most proud of the many lifelong, positive relationships he’s developed with our patients. Additionally, every member on our team looks forward to providing you with the dental care you need to achieve a healthy, beautiful smile. We know what a challenge it can be to find a dentist that offers everything you need: convenience for routine dental care and general dentistry, as well as experience and training to treat complex dental problems. Dental Distinction is a family dental office in Chester Springs, PA, led by Jason Petkevis, DMD, that offers all of that and more. Please schedule an appointment online, and we look forward to seeing you soon. 

Posted in: Chester Springs Cosmetic Dentistry, Chester Springs Dentist, Chester Springs Family Dentist, childrens dentist chester springs

The Difference Between Dental Crowns & Porcelain Veneers

Restorative Dentist, Chester Springs, PaAt Dental Distinction, Dr. Petkevis provides a wide range of cosmetic and restorative dental services to ensure he can meet the needs of any and all of our patients. Dental crowns and porcelain veneers are two common services that we provide in our Chester Springs, PA dentist’s office. While these two services seem very similar, they are actually very different. Here are some things to know about porcelain veneers and dental crowns: 

Porcelain Veneers

Porcelain veneers are thin, ceramic shells that are attached to the front-facing portion of your tooth. Typically used for cosmetic purposes, porcelain veneers are great for covering small chips, stains, or irregularly shapen teeth within your smile. This helps create a more uniform appearance within your smile while allowing you to maintain the structure of your natural tooth hidden behind the porcelain veneer. Because porcelain veneers are extremely thin, they only require a small amount of enamel removal making this a minimally invasive treatment option. While porcelain veneers are great for resolving minor cosmetic issues, there are some chips or cracks that will require more extensive restorative care. That is where dental crowns come in. 

Dental Crowns 

Dental crowns are a complete tooth restoration involving a prosthetic, porcelain tooth. The restoration replaces the entire exterior of a broken or damaged tooth. Because deep chips and cracks can mess with the functionality of your smile when you are eating or speaking, we often recommend dental crowns over porcelain veneers for resolving major dental damages. The affected tooth will be shaved down to its foundational core which will support the dental crown. While this treatment is more invasive than porcelain veneers, it helps patients avoid the need for tooth extraction following dental damage. Once complete, the dental crown will look like a completely restored version of your natural tooth. 

Schedule An Appointment

If you suspect you are in need of restorative dental care or would like to learn more about your cosmetic dentistry options for bettering your smile, we recommend scheduling an appointment with Dr. Petkevis. He is one of the leading dentists in the greater Philadelphia area for advanced restorative and cosmetic dentistry procedures.  Please schedule an appointment online, and we look forward to seeing you soon. 

Posted in: Chester Springs Cosmetic Dentistry, Chester Springs Dentist, Chester Springs Family Dentist, Chester Springs TMJ Therapy, Restorative Dentist Chester Springs

What Our Patients Are Saying About Us

Dental Distinction in Chester Springs, PA is committed to offering the highest quality preventative, restorative, and cosmetic dental care available today to families and individuals of all ages. We know that you have several options when it comes to choosing a Chester Springs, PA dentist. We want to ensure that all of our patients feel they have made the right decision in scheduling their next appointment at our dental practice. Here are some things that our current patients love about Dental Distinction:

Our Compassionate Doctor

“Dr. Petkevis is smart, up to date on new practices, gentle, caring, very competent, and is only one of a few dentists in the area with special training in new techniques and technology. Excellent Dentist. Excellent staff. Highly recommend.” – Leslie M.

Our Friendly Staff

“Friendly, professional, and knowledgeable staff. They will provide thorough care for any dental need.” – Seth W.

Our Welcoming Office Environment

“I along with my two kids, now 16 and 18 have been with this practice for over 7 years. We have been nothing but please for all those years. It is a clean and comforting atmosphere. The front desk always greets us with a smile and they are always helpful.” – Margie M.

Our Extensive Dental Expertise

“Having worked in the dental field, I had high expectations. Dr. Petkevis and his team are incredible. Every visit is enjoyable and I leave with a healthy smile! Thank you guys for being a fabulous office!” – Melissa F.

Our Personalized Care

“Dental Distinctions is the best dental practice I have ever gone to. The entire staff truly cares about their patients. The entire office makes their patients very comfortable, and welcome to the practice. I HIGHLY RECOMMEND Dental Distinctions to anyone who has been fearful in the past of going to the dentist.” – Patricia K.

Schedule An Appointment

Are you looking for a family dentist in the Chester Springs, PA area? Dental Distinction is currently accepting appointments from new and returning patients. Our practice continues to be one of the cleanest and safest office environments to receive your necessary dental care. Please contact us or schedule an appointment online. We look forward to seeing you soon.


Posted in: Chester Springs Dentist

Why You Should Choose Dental Distinction

Dr. Petkevis New Office on Pottstown Pike Opens Sept. 3 2013At Dental Distinction, we are aware that you have several options when it comes to who is going to provide you with the dental care you need in the Chester Springs, PA area. We want our patients to know that when you choose us as your dental care provider, you are making the right decision. Here are three great reasons why you should choose our dental office as your trusted dental care provider in Chester Springs, PA: 

Our Extensive Expertise 

Dental Distinction is home to Dr. Jason Petkevis, one of the most experienced dentists in the Chester Springs, PA area. Known as one of the leading dentists in the greater Philadelphia area for advanced restorative and cosmetic dentistry procedures, Dr. Petkevis is passionate about providing high-quality dental care to those in his community. Dr. Petkevis has devoted extensive time and energy towards post-graduate training to be able to treat complex dental problems including missing teeth, worn/broken teeth, TMJ disorders, and cosmetic dental concerns. He has received several awards including being named one of Suburban Life’s Best Cosmetic Dentists. 

Our Compassionate Team 

Our team of dental professionals works hard to make our office a welcoming and comfortable environment for all of our patients. When you visit our office, you can rest assured that you will be welcomed with a smile. Additionally, we are always happy to answer any questions you have about upcoming appointments or procedures. Our entire staff is dedicated to patient education and helping patients feel fully informed about their dental health.  We gladly take the time to go over the details of our available services so that you know what to expect and never feel unsure in the dental chair. 

Our Comprehensive Services 

At Dental Distinction, we provide comprehensive dental services. Whether you need your regularly scheduled oral health and wellness checkup or you are in need of more intensive restorative care like bridges, implants, or crowns, we can provide you with those services.  We also perform diagnostic imaging including digital dental x-rays, intraoral photography, and oral cancer screening. We have done our best to equip our office with the ability to treat a wide range of dental concerns that we are never unprepared to help our patients. Additionally, patient safety is our priority. Our office has ALWAYS exceeded CDC standards, and we plan on continuing to do so. 

If you are looking for a reliable dentist in Chester Springs, PA, look no further than Dental Distinction. We are currently accepting new patients. Please feel free to schedule an appointment online, and we look forward to seeing you soon. 

Posted in: Chester Springs Cosmetic Dentistry, Chester Springs Dentist

Get To Know Invisalign Treatment

Cosmetic Dentistry Solutions for Crooked TeethMany of our patients visit our office looking for solutions to straighten their misaligned teeth. We often recommend Invisalign for patients dealing with mild to moderate orthodontic concerns. If you are considering Invisalign, we want to help you better understand this treatment option, what it is, and who it can help. Here are the answers to frequently asked questions about Invisalign: 

What is Invisalign? 

Invisalign is an orthodontic treatment solution involving the use of clear, plastic aligners. Each patient is given a number of aligners, with each aligner being worn about two weeks at a time before being replaced with another one. The system is designed to apply gradual amounts of pressure to the teeth, encouraging them to shift into a straighter position. Patients enjoy Invisalign because the aligners are see-through, meaning they maintain their natural smile aesthetics while undergoing treatment. Additionally, the aligners are removable, making it easier to maintain your best oral hygiene habits as well. 

What kinds of orthodontic concerns can Invisalign help with? 

Invisalign is the number one requested invisible braces system in the United States and can be used to treat a variety of orthodontic concerns including overbites, underbites, crossbites, crooked teeth, and any unsightly gaps between the teeth. Some more severe orthodontic concerns will need to be treated with traditional braces, though this largely depends on the starting point of your smile. 

What are the benefits of Invisalign compared to traditional braces? 

Traditional braces involve the firm securing of a metallic brackets and wires to the teeth surfaces until the orthodontic treatment is complete. This makes many patients feel uncomfortable with undergoing treatment because of the unwanted attention it draws to their smiles. However, Invisalign is a more discreet alternative because of the clear, thin material that the aligners are made out of. With Invisalign being removable as well, patients also enjoy the benefit of being able to undergo treatment with no dietary restrictions that would be required of them if they were receiving treatment with traditional braces. This is because, with traditional braces, you must avoid excessively crunchy or chewy foods to help maintain the brackets and wires. However, with Invisalign, patients simply remove the aligners and reapply them after they’ve finished eating their favorite foods. 

Am I a good candidate for Invisalign treatment? 

The best way to find out if you are a good candidate for Invisalign treatment is to schedule an Invisalign consultation with Dr. Petkevis. Dr. Petkevis is your trusted cosmetic and restorative dentist in Chester Springs, PA. He has extensive experience in helping patients achieve their dream smiles with Invisalign treatment. During the Invisalign consultation, Dr. Petkevis will discuss your dental health, cosmetic goals, and budget concerns to determine if clear aligners are right for you.

Posted in: Invisalign, invisible braces philadelphia

Why To Prioritize Preventative Dental Care

The coronavirus pandemic has made it difficult for many of our patients to receive their necessary preventative dental care. As we begin to reopen our office, we want to stress the importance of seeing a professional dentist at least once every six months. Here is why you should prioritize scheduling a preventative dental care appointment as soon as possible: 

Chester Springs DentistryYour Dental Health Is Directly Intertwined With Your Overall Health

Your dental health affects more than just your teeth, gums, and jawbone. Because your mouth acts as an entryway to both your digestive and respiratory systems, it’s important that it remains healthy and free of harmful bacteria.  Preventative dental care appointments consist of a thorough teeth-cleaning and examination of your dental health to ensure that excess bacteria are not building up around your soft tissues.  Allowing your gums and teeth to collect plaque and tartar buildup puts your more at risk for certain health complications like diabetes and cardiovascular disease. 

Preventative Care Saves Time and Money 

One of the best ways to reduce your risk of needing costly restorative dental procedures is to schedule regular preventative care appointments. These preventative care appointments allow for your dentist to keep a close eye on your dental health and catch any underlying dental concerns before they become major issues. Most dental concerns do not showcase noticeable symptoms until they progress into later stages, causing sudden pain or tooth loss. It’s important that your dental structures are evaluated by a professional to help reduce your risk of unexpected dental expenses and discomfort. 

Patient Safety is Our Priority

At Dental Distinction, we understand that offices can no longer proceed with care the same way we did even just a few months ago. Our office has ALWAYS exceeded CDC standards, and we plan on continuing to do so. During the coronavirus pandemic, our team has developed an improved infection control plan to ensure that our office continues to be the safest, cleanest office in the Chester Springs area. We have updated our procedures and protocols to ensure that we can safely see all of our patients and provide preventative dental care once again. For more information on our patient safety initiatives, click here. 

Schedule An Appointment 

Dental Distinction is a family dental office in Chester Springs, PA, led by Jason Petkevis, DMD. If you are in need of preventative dental care, please contact us regarding scheduling your next appointment. 


Posted in: preventive dental care, Routine Care

Letter To Patients: COVID-19 & Our Office

Dear Patients,

We are eagerly awaiting to see all of your smiles again! We want to take a moment to remind you that our top priority is always your health, safety, and well-being. As we reopen our office, we are proud to say, that after much hard work and preparation, we are prepared to deliver the high-quality dental experience you have come to expect from us, in the safest environment possible.

We are vigilant in monitoring the recommendations of the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and the American Dental Association for infection control related to COVID-19. After reviewing the latest guidelines, we can say, with confidence, that our increased protocols go above and beyond those recommendations to keep you safe.
We are committed to implementing safety protocols. In addition to our existing measures, you should anticipate noticing the following protective efforts when you enter our dental office:

  • All patients answer a screening questionnaire prior to arrival. Appointments rescheduled if the risk of patient transmission of illness, including COVID-19 has been determined.
  • Plexiglass barrier upon exiting at the front desk to reduce the spread of germs in an area where social distancing may be compromised.
  • Increased efforts to disinfect throughout our office and reception area. Wiping down countertops, touch screens, and credit card machines after each use and regularly disinfecting bathrooms, furniture, doors, and handles.
  • Reduction in the number of people allowed in the reception area at one time.
  • Improved traffic flow upon entering and exiting the office by use of all entrances and exits.
  • Reduction in the number of patients treated simultaneously.
  • Increase in the time between patient visits to allow for more thorough disinfection.
  • Enhanced disinfecting protocol in our exam rooms including additional disposable barriers changed between patients, all surfaces disinfected with Cavicide chemical germicide between each patient with appropriate application times.
  • Additional manpower to focus solely on sterilization and disinfection.
  • Increased PPE for all staff who provide dental care including face shields, and N95 masks.
  • Improved air filtration in the HVAC system to remove germs from the air utilizing an Aerus air scrubber with HEPA filtration and UV light to destroy pathogens.
  • Aerosol control through High Volume Evacuation (HVE) during dental procedures using the VacuLUX HVE Adapter which helps remove over 90% of aerosols created during procedures.
  • Additional aerosol control using Vanguard Gold Extraoral Chairside Suction with HEPA and Charcoal filtration to help remove and destroy any residual aerosols.

In addition to our efforts, we ask for your cooperation and support with the following safety measures as we work through the current situation:

  • Maintain social distancing practices to the best extent possible.
  • Wait in your car upon arrival. Give us a call to let us know you’ve arrived and we’ll notify you when we’re ready for you to come in.
  • Immediately use the hand sanitizer provided upon arrival.
  • Have your temperature taken upon entering the office.
  • Perform a 1-minute swish with a peroxide rinse dispensed chair side.
  • Please do not bring friends or relatives who do not have a scheduled appointment. Only scheduled patients will be allowed in the treatment and common areas.
  • Use the door located to the side of the check out area leading to the front porch on the Pottstown Pike side of the building when exiting.
  • As you can see, we have gone above and beyond usual and customary efforts to keep you safe. We care about you! Thank you for your patience and flexibility as we all work towards a happy and healthy future.

    Take Care,
    Dr. Petkevis and the team at Dental Distinction

    Posted in: Dentist Office Chester Springs, news and events

    3 Smile-Friendly Snacks

    Healthy Snacks for Healthy Smiles The COVID-19 crisis has left many people around the world stuck at home. Many of our patients have had to postpone their preventative dental care appointments because of this crisis. As a result, we wanted to provide some suggestions on how you can continue to care for your dental health at home. Here are three smile-friendly snacks to keep around your home during quarantine: 


    Cheese is one of the best snacks you can munch on throughout the day. It is full of calcium, which your teeth need to maintain their strength. Additionally, cheese is soft and easier to chew than crunchier snacks. For patients with TMJ disorders or frequent jaw pain, crunchier snacks like potato chips often overwork your mouth muscles and can lead to even more discomfort later on. Additionally, potato chips contain harmful starches that can contribute to plaque and tartar buildup. Instead, try opting for a cheese snack. We suggest sliced cheese, cubed cheese, or string cheese for maximum convenience. You can enjoy this snack knowing that it is both delicious and good for your dental health. 

    Fruit Smoothies 

    Fruit smoothies are fun to make and delicious for the whole family to enjoy. Include all of your favorite fruits in a smoothie and serve it as a snack. We recommend making a smoothie with kiwis or strawberries. Kiwis are high in calcium content, while strawberries contain high levels of Vitamin C. Vitamin C is essential to your dental health because it helps fight off gum disease. Both of these fruits are highly fibrous, making them great for your overall health. You can even include some plain Greek yogurt in your smoothie to increase the amount of calcium while also making your smoothie creamier. 

    Assorted Nuts  

    We understand that sometimes you might crave a crunchier snack. To help with this craving, we suggest assorted nuts. They are much better to keep around than a bowl of candy. Nuts like almonds, walnuts, and cashews contain loads of vitamins or minerals that are essential to your dental health. Additionally, they help with saliva stimulation which your smile needs to maintain a moist environment for your teeth and soft tissues. Just make sure that you are careful as you chew on this snack, and always opt for a softer snack if you are experiencing jaw pain or soreness. 

    Schedule An Appointment

    Dental Distinction is a family dental office in Chester Springs, PA, led by Jason Petkevis, DMD, that offers all of that and more. As a family dentist, Dr. Petkevis believes that a smile should do more than just look good. It should also be healthy and stable to last a lifetime. Our office is currently only seeing emergency dentistry patients; however, we look forward to seeing all of our patients again soon. If you have any questions regarding scheduling your next dental appointment, please reach out to our office at 610.458.8025

    Posted in: Chester Springs Dentist, Chester Springs Family Dentist

    Your Dental Health During COVID-19

    Dental Distinction wants to update you on our current policies and procedures as we adapt to the coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis. Here is how our team is responding to this crisis in addition to how you can do your part to ensure your oral health during this stressful time. 

    Dr. Jason Petkevis’s Response to COVID-19 

    In an effort to help control the spread of the coronavirus, our office will limit appointments to essential and emergency procedures until further notice.

    This decision is in accordance with the recommendation released by the American Dental Association (ADA) to postpone elective procedures.

    At Dental Distinction, we have always followed standard universal precautions issued by the CDC and ADA to help protect every one of our patients and team members from the many infectious diseases that we are potentially exposed to on a daily basis. Our patients and our staff are so valuable to us. During this time, we want what is best for our patients and what is best for our team, and are exercising this recommendation out of an abundance of caution.

    If you have an upcoming non-urgent appointment, we will be in contact with you soon to reschedule and we will notify you when we are fully prepared to resume business as usual for all of our patients.

    Our office will remain open Monday through Thursday 8am-4pm for your questions and concerns. Additionally, we will be treating dental emergencies on an as-needed basis. 

    If you are experiencing a dental emergency, please call our office at 610-458-8025.

    We appreciate your understanding during this time. We will continue to be in touch as this situation develops in regard to resuming normal operations. 

    What You Can Do

    We want to encourage all of our patients to continue prioritizing their dental health during this time. Here are our tips for maintaining a healthy smile even under stressful situations: 

    Eat a Well-Balanced Diet – Plaque and tartar are the root causes of several dental concerns, especially gum disease. We want our patients to avoid buildup around their gum lines, even during times of high stress. Make sure to eat a well-balanced diet as you continue to practice social distancing. Common comfort foods and drinks like hard candies and sodas are known for their sugary and sticky residues, which are really bad for your teeth. Practice moderation with your diet to ensure the health of your teeth, gums, and jaw. 

    Practice Good Oral Hygiene – Brushing and flossing your teeth at least twice a day goes a long way in ensuring your oral health. While our daily schedules are all thrown out of whack right now, you should continue to practice good oral hygiene habits as regularly as possible. 

    Relax Your Jaw – Teeth grinding is a common response to stress. As you find yourself working from home, caring for children, or watching the news, practice mindfulness with the tension you hold in your jaw. Throughout the day, remind yourself to relax your jaw and stretch your facial muscles to reduce your likelihood for teeth grinding symptoms like headaches, earaches, and sore teeth. 

    As your trusted dentist in Chester Springs, we look forward to seeing you soon for your regular preventative care. Please reach out to us if you experience a dental emergency during this time.


    Posted in: Chester Springs Dentist

    Maintaining Good Oral Health Over 55

    Tooth replacement, Chester Springs, PaEvery time you turn on the news, see your news feed, or see your doctor, you are reminded that it is important to maintain good health. Taking care of your oral health is just as important even as we age, perhaps more important due to changing dental issues as we age. For some, they  may no longer have their original teeth and now have dentures or partials. For these reasons, it is vital to take proper care of your mouth to avoid future problems.

    Dr. Jason Petkevis located in Chester Springs, PA is here to take care of all your dental needs, including those who patients are over the age of 55.

    Fluoride Is Still Important for Your Oral Health Over 55

    While it is true, fluoride is necessary for children to keep teeth healthy and help prevent decay and cavities, fluoride is still necessary even for older adults. Adults get cavities too!  While the reasons why children and adults get cavities may differ, it is still important to include fluoride in your daily routine as a mature adult.

    Many companies that offer dental products to consumers are now routinely including fluoride in them. It is still recommended that patients brush and floss twice a day. Many municipal water supplies are now fluorinated so drinking tap water is encouraged. This is another way of protecting our teeth and enamel against decay. Many dentists still recommend fluoride treatments as part of your six month dental check-up.

    Watch Out for Dry Mouth

    Aging doesn’t necessarily mean we are prone to dry mouth, but some are plagued with chronic conditions as they age and need to take more medications to treat those conditions. Those medications could be the culprit for dry mouth. Saliva is responsible for washing away food in the mouth, helping to prevent tooth decay. Any food particles left behind though, can create a breeding ground for bacteria to form and thus cause dental issues, such as chafing between your dentures and gums. 

    There is hope if you find yourself suffering from dry mouth by making a few lifestyle changes. Consumers have a choice and products available to them to help with this condition. There are mouthwash and sprays available that contain special mouth moisturizers to help with the problem. Another solution is to chew sugar-free gum. Chewing gum encourages the mouth to produce saliva. Be sure to choose sugar-free gum!  And lastly, there are artificial saliva products on the market that mimic real saliva. 

    Check with Dr. Petkevis for recommendations for your particular situation for additional tips and suggestions. In some cases, a change in your medication may be needed to alleviate the symptoms of dry mouth.

    Caring for Your Dentures

    As we age, the likelihood that we will lose a tooth increases. Current estimates by dental experts are that 170 million people are missing at least one tooth. Caring for dentures is just as important in caring for your natural teeth. Keep in mind that with dentures, you must maintain them daily using toothpaste that is made for especially dentures. 

    It is very important to use a soft toothbrush when caring for your dentures. Brushing your dentures and tongue daily helps to remove any food particles and bacteria remaining in your mouth. Also, if you have partials or implants, be sure to floss between the implants prior to reinserting your dentures. If you need assistance in caring for your dentures or implants, please contact Dr. Petkevis or your local dentist. With proper care, your dentures, partials and implants will last a long time.

    Don’t Forget about Gum Disease

    Gum disease among older adults is still a real concern even if you don’t have all your own teeth. With proper care and regular visits to your dentist, gum disease can be kept at bay or even prevented. Should you see the early signs of gum disease, get to your dentist so it can be treated quickly.

    Oral Health Over 55 in Chester Springs, PA

    Keeping up with your routine visits to the dentist, practicing good oral hygiene and making the necessary changes to your routine as you age will help to maintain your beautiful smile for many years, no matter what your age.

    If you are in the Chester Springs, PA area and are in need of routine or cosmetic dental care, please call 610-400-1459 for an appointment. You can also schedule an appointment online to see Dr. Petkevis in Chester Springs, PA  today!

    Posted in: Dentist in Chester Springs